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Saturday, 16 February 2019

CHILLERS

          A chiller is a machine, its function is to remove heat from a liquid or from one location (Generally process equipment or product) to another place (Genarlly the air outside the manufacturing facility) through a Vapour-compression cycle or absorption cycle. To transfer the heat to and fro from the chiller we commonly use water or water/glycol solution. This liquid is recirculated through a heat exchanger to cool equipment, or another process stream (such as air or process water). As a necessary by product, refrigiration process creates waste heat that must be exhausted to ambience, or for greater efficiency, recovered for heating purposes.

          Chilled water is used to coll and dehumidify air in midum to large commercial and industrial facilities. Water chillers are water cooled, air-cooled, or evaporatively cooled. Water cooled system can be provide efficiency and doesnt harm to the environment when compared to air-cooled systems.

          Industrial water chillers are used to cool products and machinary, like injection molding, tool and die cutting, food and beverage, chemicals, lasers etc.,

          Regardless of industry and process, we have to make sure that we have sufficient cooling system which gives productivity and cost saving.

How does a Chiller Work?
          In most process cooling applications, a pumping system circulates cool water or a water/glycol solution from the chiller to the process. This cool fluid absorbs (removes) heat from the process and this warm fluid returns to the chiller. By this process the heat from the process transfers to the chiller.

          Chiller contains a chemical compound called a refrigerant. There are many types of refrigerent and their applications depending on the process temperatures we required. All refrigerents works on the same basic principle that compression and phase change of the refrigerent from a liquid to a gas (vapour) and back to liquid. This process of heating and cooling the refrigerent and changing it states (liquid-vapour-liquid) is called refrigeration cycle.

          The refrigeration cycle starts with a low-pressure liquid/gas mix entering the evaporator. In the evaporator, heat from the process water or water/glycol solution is transfered to the refrigerent, which changes it from a lo-pressure liquid to a low-pressure gas (vapour). The low-pressure gas enters the compressor where it is compressed to high-pressure gas. The high-pressure gas enters the condensor where ambient air or condenser water removes heat to cool it to a high pressure liquid. The high-pressure liquid travels to the expansion valve, the expansion valve controls the amount of liquid refrigerent enters the evaporator, thereby beginning the refrigeration cycle again.

          There are two types of condensers used chillers; they are air-cooled and water -cooled. An air-cooled condenser uses ambient air to cool and condenstae the hot refrigerent vapour to a liquid. It can be located inside the chiller or outside the chiller, but its ultimate function is to remove the heat from chiller to the air. In water cooled condenser, water which is circulated from the cooling tower cools and condenses the refrigerent.

Best chiller for your process and selection:

          Chillers are ranges in many sizes and design. Chiller selection depends upon total life cycle cost, the power source, evoporator capasity and material, condenser capasity and material, ambient temperature, coolant, discharge temperature of fluid, and COP. Based on these factors chillers are available as small, portable units to large central chillers.       
     

Image Courtesy: The engineeringmindset.com


Friday, 1 February 2019

The names of all Sikh Gurus and their achievements

          Today we are providing some tricks to remember All the Sikhs Guru and their Achievements which usually asks in  Competative Exam  like SSC CHSL,  SSC MTS and SSC Steno.
Sikhism
Sikhis a sanskrit word which means ‘desciple’. Sikh guru's are the holy leaders and teachers. Sikhism is developed in the region of panjab.
Guru Nanak (1469- 1539)
He Founded Sikh Religion.
His teachings are composed in Adi Granth or Granth Sahib.
Guru Angad (1538-1552)
His original name is 'Lehna'. He Invented a new script called “Guru-Mukhi”.
Guru Amardas (1552-1574)
Started the Langar or Community Kichen, a free kitchen where everyone gather and eat.
He formed the manuscripts of sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib.
Led struggle against Sati and Purdah System.
Guru Ramdas (1574-1581)
Founded Amritsar in 1577 on the land granted by Akbar.
Guru Arjun Dev (1581-1606)  
Founded the Swarna Mandir or Golden Temple at Amritsar.
Composed Adi Granth in 1604.
Executed by Jehangir on charges of helping prince Khusrau with money and Prayer.
Guru Hargovind (1606-1645)
Transformed the Sikh into a militant community.
EstablishednAkal Takht and fortified Amritsar.
Guru Har Rai (1645-1661)
Guru Har Kishan(1661-1664)
He is the youngest Sikh Guru
Guru Teg Bahadur (1664-1675)
He was executed at Delhi by Aurangazeb for not embracing islam.
He called himself “Sachcha Badshah”.
Guru Govind Singh(1675-1708)
He founded the Khalsa in 1699.
Introduced a new rite “Pahul”.
He made his headquarter at Makhowal or Anandpur. He compilled a supplementary Granth.
He joined Bahadur Shah’s camp as a noble.
TRICK To Remember Name Nanak Angdan kr Amar ho Ram ke pass chale gaye lekin Arjunne Govind ki Rai li or kitni baduri se Kudh Govind ban gaye.
Guru Nanak ………………………… 1469-1538
Guru Angad ..……………………. 1538 – 1552
Guru Amardas …………………… 1552 – 1574
Guru Ramdas …………………….. 1574 – 1581
Guru Arjundev ………………….. 1581 – 1606
Guru Hargovind …………………. 1606 – 1645
Guru Har Rai ……………………… 1645 – 1661
Guru Har Kishan ………………….. 1661-1664
Guru Teg Bahadur.……………….. 1664-1675
Guru Govind Singh …………….. 1675 – 1708

Important local winds list

                  Local winds are due to the uneaqual heating and cooling in that area, gravity and tempeartures. Here a small list of important local winds,
Chinook or Snow eater – Hot, Dry wind in Rockies. Cattle grazing depends on this wind because it melts the snow.
Sirocco – Hot, moist, dusty wind from Sahara to Mediterranean
Sea Solano  Hot, moist wind from Sahara towards Iberian Peninsula
Harmattan – Hot, Dry wind blowing outwards from interior of west Africa, also called Guinea Doctor
Bise  Cold , dry wind blowing from northeast over the alphs to the switzerland and france.
Bora – Cold, strong dry wind blowing outwards from Hungary to the north of Italy (near Adriatic Sea)
Xlokk – It is pronounced as "shlok". It is the hot, dry dusty (Sirocco) wind in Malta.
Foehn – Hot, Dry wind in the Alps
Khamsin – Hot, Dry wind in Egypt. thw wind is said to blow for 50 days.
Mistral – Very cold wind, that blows down from the Alps over France
Punas – Cold, dry wind blowing down towards the western side of Andes
Blizzard – Very cold winds in Tundra region
Brickfielder – Hot wind in Australia that bring hot air outback to the cooler area.
Purga – Cold wind in Russian
Willy willy - A local wirling wind in Australia.
Tundra Levanter – cold wind in Spain
Norwester – Hot wind in New Zealand
Santa Ana – Hot wind in S. California in USA

Friday, 25 January 2019

Electrification of a Body (or) Electrification processes of bodies

          A body can be charged or electrified in many ways; the methods are discussed below:
a. Charging by friction
b. Charging by conduction or contact
c. Charging by induction
d. Electrification byh heating
e. Electrification by pressure

a. Charging by friction: When two nutral bodies are rubbed against each other, due to friction one of them losses electrons and hence gets positively charged and the body that ains electrons gets negetively charged.
Experiment: Take a small piece of uncharged plastic rod and cloth, rub against each other this will result both of them get charged. Same thing will happen between rubber rod and fur, Glass rod and silk cloth.

b. Charging by conduction: When a charged body is brought in direct contact with an uncharged body (or nutral body), it shares its charge with it. Thus the uncharged body becomes charged.

c. Charging by Induction: The process of temporary electrification of an initially neutral conductiong body (induced) by bringing a charged body (inducer) close to it without making any actual contact between the bodies is known as charging by induction.

d. Electrification by heating: Certain bodies, when heated, is electrified by presenting contrary electricities names in two diametrically opposite points. The phenomenon is called pyroelectric phenomenon. It is more common in crystalls, such as Tourmaline.

e. Electrification by pressure: Certain bodies, when compressed, is electrified, displaying electricities names against the ends. The phenomenon is called piezoelecttric phenomenon. It is also ore common in crystals, such as Tourmaline, Calcite, and Quartz. 

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