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Thursday, 19 April 2018

::: VITAMINS :::

Vitamins are discovered by F.G. Hopkins.
A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a crusial nutrient in limited amounts for normal health and development. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is known as vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be taken from food or from some synthetic source. Because of this they called as essential nutrients. Each Vitamin do a particular job. If we have insufficient levels of vitamin, we may get health issues. In this way, the term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the specific organism. As an example, Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animals, and Biotin (vitamin H) and Calcifeorl (vitamin D) are required in the human eating regimen just in specific conditions.

Some vitamins are soluble in fat and some are in water.
Fat soluble : A, D, E, K
Water soluble : B, C 

List of vitamins, Their chemical names, Functions and sources
Vitamin generic
Vitamin chemical name(s)
Solubility
Deficiency disease
Food sources
descriptor name
Vitamin A
Retinol,
retinal, and four carotenoids including beta carotene
Fat
Night blindness, Hyperkeratosis, and Keratomalacia
Fish (cod liver oil),Orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, soy milk, milk
Vitamin B1
Thiamin
Water
Beriberi, Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome
Found in all nutritious foods in moderte amounts:  Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, eggs
Vitamin B2
Riboflavin
Water
Ariboflavinosis
Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B3
Niacin, niacinamide
Water
Pellagra
Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B5
Pantothenic acid
Water
Paresthesia
Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B6
Pyridoxine,pyridoxamine,pyridoxal
Water
Anemia peripheral neuropathy.
Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B7
Biotin
Water
Dermatitis, enteritis
Raw egg yolk, peanuts, certain vegetables
Vitamin B9
Folic acid,
folinic acid
Water
Megaloblastic anemia and Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects
Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal
Vitamin B12
Cyanocobalamin,hydroxyco balamin,
methylcobalamin
Water
Megaloblastic anemia
Meat and other animal products
Vitamin C
Ascorbic acid
Water
Scurvy
Especially Citrus fruits, Vegitables in cabbage family
Vitamin D
Cholecalciferol,
Ergocalciferol
Fat
Rickets and Osteomalacia
Fish (cod liver oil), eggs, mushrooms
Vitamin E
Tocopherols,
tocotrienols
Fat
Deficiency is very rare; mildhemolytic anemia in newborn infants.
Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
Vitamin K
Phylloquinone,
menaquinones
Fat
Bleeding diathesis
Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, egg yolks

Note:
Cod liver oil contains -- vitamin A and D
Vitamin A deficiency causes -- night blindness, dermatitis.

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