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Friday, 1 June 2018

Chemistry Notes: Some important metals and their Uses

Dear Readers,
Here we will discuss metals and their uses.

Metals:
1. Metals are good conductors of heat, sound & electricity and are malleable and ductile.
2. When compared to all metals Gold and silver are most malleable and best ductile metals.
3. Silver is the best conductor of heat followed by copper.
4. Cooking utensils are made of Aluminium and copper because they are good conductors of heat.
5. Mercury is liquid at room temperaure.
6. Mercury offers high resistance to the flow of electric current.
7. Sodium and potassium are so soft that they can be easily cut with knife.
8. Metals are electropositive in nature.
9. Almost all the metal oxide are basic in nature but zinc oxide and aluminium oxide are amphoteric.



Alkali metals and their properties:
a. Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium are alkali metals.
b. These metals react with air so they are stored under kerosene or liquid paraffin.

Sodium chloride (NaCl):
--> It is generally called as common salt or table salt.
--> They are white crystals which do not have smell or odor but possess taste.
--> Used in the industrial manufacturing of sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas.
--> It is used as a starting material in the manufacturing of caustic soda.
--> In cold countries it is used in the removing of ice from road, now a days CaCl2 and MgCl2 are also used for this purpose.

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH):
A. Used in the refining of bauxite material.
B. It is major ingradient in drain cleaners.
C. Used in soap, dyes and artificial industries.

Backing Soda or Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3):
1. It is commonly known as baking soda.
2. When mixed with a mild edible acid such as Tartaric acid, it is called as ‘Backing Powder’.
3. Used as a mild antiseptic for skin infections.
4. Used for wool washing.
5. Used in the fire extinguisher.
6. Ant and Bee sting contains Methonoic (or) Formic acid, due to which victim feel pain and irritation on bite. Baking soda is used a remedy for it.

Washing Soda or Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3):
a. It is generally known as washing soda.
b. Used for removing permanent hardness of water.
c. Mixture of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate is known as Fusion mixture.

Sodium Sulphate (Na2SO4):
1. It is commonly known as Glauber’s salt.
2. It is also called as Sulfate of soda. 
3. It is used as purgative.
4. It is used as drying agent.

Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3):
--> It is commonly known as Hypo.
--> Used in the photography as fixing agent.
--> It is used as a antidote for treating cyanide poisoning.
--> Used in Leather tanning, and gold extraction.

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3):
A. It is known as pearl ash.
B. It is also used in fire extinguishers, soap making.
C. We can found it in Effervescent tablets, these tablets are used to provide potassium when there is low levels of potassium in blood.

Potassium hydroxide (KOH):
a. Commonly known as caustic potash.
b. Use in the preparation of soft soap by saponification.
c. Used as a electrolite in alkaline batteries.
d. Its aqueous solution is known as potash Iye.
e. It is also used in petrolium refining, Fertilizer production and Cleaning solutions.

Potassium superoxide (KO2):
Used in space capsules, submarines and breathing mask because it liberates Oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and carbon monoixide.

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